Folk art and nature motives had not been the only one source for the
creating and interpreting these ornamentation. Some names of the textile patterns recorded
in the 20th century revealed their similarity to the natural phenomenon, others were based
on the weaving technique, purpose of fabric and the time of weaving. Besides,
the quadrangle pattern names of vegepicture or animal origin, as well as those connected
with working tools and religious symbols, had become established in Lithuania. Researches
have confirmed and revealed that similar cudweed form ornamentation had been woven
in many ways. Dim weaving technique had been applied for simple crosses. In
the localities where multi-thread textile existed females made dim technique
textile following the picturecloth textile and sashes example. It is obvious that the
majority of the ornamentation motives are typical of the entire territory of Lithuania
with slight differences of naming.
A presenter from south-eastern Lithuania claimed a small cross
to be the most ancient ornamentation (map). These patterns could be
compared with eight-thread marguliai (motleys) woven using the picturecloth
(servetine) technique at the beginning of the 20th century. In the
first half of the 20th century X-shape pattern (picture 3.10:1) had been typical of
Western Lithuania and kryzinis (cross-shape) pattern of
Eastern Lithuania. Prolonged and split, as if X-shape, ornamentation had been arranged both in Eastern and Western
patterns had been typical of Eastern Lithuania. The harrow form
textiles motives had been woven on the entire territory of Lithuania. Majority of the presenters claimed it to be a later naming of the ornamentation.
Its spreading might have been influenced by various publications. In Lithuania the same
patterns had been woven by Lithuanians and weavers of other nationalities.
The spreading and changing of local ornamentation forms had not been
even, either. In the late 19th and early 20th century two, four and more size
elements three way structured harrows, cross-shaped and the ornamentation of
similar forms had dominated in various localities of Lithuania (map). The
cross-shaped motives had retained their local originality: The so called cross-shaped
pattern is typical of the eastern part of Lithuania, meanwhile, X-shape of its western
In the course of time interpretations of quadrangle patterns become
more popular, however, new versions of the ornamentation did not shove the old ones. The
textiles samples had greatly influenced the spreading of patterns. Special books on
weaving techniques contained names of the ornamentation. Lithuanian and Swedish weavers
considered similar ornamentation to be several pattern combinations, however, they called
then differently. The originality of peoples imagination proves that only the forms of
these patterns might have spread through publications. The naming of the ornamentation and
the symbolics of clearly expressed geometric forms are closely linked with peoples
The quadrangle pattern motives such as cross and harrow had been
spreading in the ornamentation of the Baltic region, neighbouring countries and further even reaching the pre-Colombian Peru. The Lithuanian weavers had also
influenced neighbouring European countries. So, in Polish literature we find the name of
the textiles vilnietiški. It must be said that the ornamentation forms that
cross the borders acquire local features and with time the authentic pattern forms become
less noticeable than their peculiar characteristics.
It is curious that recreated quadrangle pattern forms are very simple. The authentic motives of the ornamentation are part of ethnic identity.
Lithuanians living in a foreign cultural environment make interpretations of the textile
ornamentation in various works of art.